This guide lists print and online resources for researching treaties to which the United States is unlikely to be a party. A separate research guide on U.S. Treaties and International Agreements lists resources for researching treaties to which the United States is a party. There are two different research guides because different indices, finding guides, and databases are useful to find treaty text and treaty status depending upon whether or not the U.S. is a party. If you are in doubt about whether the United States is a party to a particular treaty, use the indices and finding guides listed in the research guide for U.S. Treaties and International Agreements first.
If you have questions about treaty research -- U.S. or not, current or historical -- Heafey Research Librarians will be happy to help: 408 554-4452; firstname.lastname@example.org.
The following Intergovernmental Treaty Sources listed in the Bluebook (Table T4) are available in the Heafey Law Library:
United Nations Treaty Series (U.N.T.S.), 1946 -
Law Microforms KZ172 .U35
This is the current official publication for treaties deposited with the United Nations. UN member states are under no obligation to deposit treaties, but the UN will not aid in the enforcement of a treaty which has not been deposited.
UN treaties are also available online in the United Nations Treaty Collection and in Hein Online's United Nations Law Collection. United Nations treaties are included in the U.S. treaty databases on lexis.com and Westlaw if the United States is a party to the treaty.
League of Nations Treaty Series (L.N.T.S.), 1920 - 1945
Law Microforms KZ172 .L43
The League of Nations Treaty Series is the predecessor of the United Nations Treaty Series.
League of Nations Treaties are also available in the United Nations Treaty Collection and in Hein Online's United Nations Law Collection. League of Nations treaties are included in the U.S. treaty databases on lexis.com and Westlaw if the United States is a party to the treaty.
The following Unofficial Treaty Sources, listed in the Bluebook (Table T4), are available in the Heafey Law Library:
International Legal Materials (I.L.M.), 1962 -
This periodical, published by the American Society of International Law, is available in print, in .pdf format in the Hein Online Treaties and Agreements Library, and is searchable on lexis.com and Westlaw.
[Parry's] Consolidated Treaty Series (Consol. T.S.), 1648 - 1919
The multivolume series includes treaties from 1648 through 1919 and includes its own multivolume index.
Hein's United States Treaties and Other International Agreements and Bevans -- Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States, 1779-1949 -- listed in the Bluebook as Unofficial Treaty Sources, contain treaties to which the United States is a party. For additional information about these two sources, see the Research Guide on U.S. Treaties and International Agreements.
Additional treaty sources listed in the Bluebook (Table T4), but unavailable in print at the Heafey Law Library, are listed here:
Pan American Treaty Series (Pan-Am. T.S.), 1949 -
Organization of American States Treaty Series (O.A.S.T.S.), 1970 -
The website of the Organization of American States Department of International Law has a searchable database of O.A.S. treaties, 1947 - , status information, and a list of recent actions (2003 - ).
European Treaty Series (E.T.S.), 1948 - 2003
Council of Europe Treaty Series (C.E.T.S.), 2004 -
The website of the Council of Europe Treaty Office has a searchable database of C.E.T.S. treaties, 1949 - , and status information, including reservations and declarations.
Nouveau Recueil General des Traites (Martens Nouveau Recueil), 1494 - 1843
If you have a citation to one of these source and cannot find the treaty elsewhere, we will request a copy of the treaty for you via interlibrary loan.