Gender and the Law

This guide contains materials dealing with sex and gender discrimination, sex stereotyping, and state/federal laws pertaining to gender or sex.


Although gender minorities (people who are intersex) are a relatively small demographic, the issues they pose to health care law are wide reaching.  A diverse array of bioethical issues arise when addressing the health care needs of the intersex community.  These include the controversial subjects of sex determination surgery and the role gender, and sex, play in our culture and in our public policy.

Journal Articles

If you are looking for journal articles, remember to use both the full-text database on Westlaw and also a bibliographic database such as LegalTrac or Index to Legal Periodicals.

Ehrenreich, Nancy & Barr, Mark.  Intersex surgery, female genital cutting, and the selective condemnation of "cultural practices", 40 Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review 71 (2005)

Feldblum, Chai.  The right to define one's own concept of existence : what Lawrence can mean for intersex and transgender people, 7 Georgetown Journal of Gender and the Law 115 (2006)

George, Marie-Amelie.  The modern mulatto : a comparative analysis of the social and legal positions of mulattoes in the antebellum South and the intersex in contemporary America, 15 Columbia Journal of Gender and Law 665 (2006)

Gurney, Karen.  Sex and the surgeon's knife : the family court's dilemma regarding informed consent and the spector of iatrogenic harm to children with intersex characteristics, 33 American Journal of Law and Medicine 625 (2007)

Haas, Kate.  Who will make room for the intersexed?, 30 American Journal of Law and Medicine 41 (2004)

Hermer, Laura.  Paradigms revised : intersex children, bioethics and the law, 11 Annals of Health Law 195 (2002)

Muckle, Christine.  Giving a voice to intersex individuals through hospital ethics committees, 2006 Wisconsin Law Review 987 (2006)

Parlett, Kate & Weston-Scheuber, Kylie-Maree.  Consent to treatment for transgender and intersex children, 9 Deakin Law Review 375 (2004)

Tamar-Mattis, Anne.  Exceptions to the rule : curing the law's failure to protect intersex infants, 21 Berkeley Journal of Gender, Law & Justice 59 (2006)

Organizational Websites

Panel Discussion on Surgical Genital Intervention on Intersex Infants

Heafey Law Library Research Team